Hypercalcaemic multicentric lymphoma in a dog presenting as clitoromegaly
Language: English French. This report provides a detailed description and images of a clitorectomy with a urethral transposition. As described, the clitorectomy is a straight-forward procedure, creating more normal female-like anatomy, and it resolves the clinical signs resulting from the exposed clitoris. When abnormal clitoral development results in enlargement or development of male-like characteristics, the condition is called clitoral hypertrophy. With this condition, the sensitive enlarged clitoris protrudes outside the vulvar labia, resulting in chronic irritation, licking, and mucoid to mucopurulent vulvar discharge.
Chapter 92 Diseases of the Vagina and Vulva. Small animals with diseases of the vulva and vagina can present with clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease urgency, pollakiuria, stranguria, and hematuria , intermittent or continuous urinary incontinence, vaginal discharge, perivulvar dermatitis, excessive licking, and foul odor. Because the vulva and the vestibule form a common orifice for the lower urinary and reproductive systems, careful examination of associated diseases is warranted.
Vaginal and vulvar tumors are uncommon in dogs. Knowledge of canine primary clitoral neoplasia is restricted to a few case reports, and only carcinomas have been reported. Cytologic and histologic features reported in the literature seem to overlap with those of canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma AGASA. In this study, 6 cases of primary canine clitoral carcinomas CCCs , with and without HM, were investigated by means of cytology, histopathology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry for neuroendocrine markers including chromogranin A CGA , synaptophysin SYN , neuron-specific enolase NSE , and S